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تفسير ابن كثر - سورة البقرة - الآية 109

خيارات حفظ الصفحة والطباعة

حفظ الصفحة بصيغة ووردحفظ الصفحة بصيغة النوت باد أو بملف نصيحفظ الصفحة بصيغة htmlطباعة الصفحة
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وَدَّ كَثِيرٌ مِّنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُم مِّن بَعْدِ إِيمَانِكُمْ كُفَّارًا حَسَدًا مِّنْ عِندِ أَنفُسِهِم مِّن بَعْدِ مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ ۖ فَاعْفُوا وَاصْفَحُوا حَتَّىٰ يَأْتِيَ اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ (109) (البقرة) mp3
يُحَذِّر تَعَالَى عِبَاده الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَنْ سُلُوك طَرِيق الْكُفَّار مِنْ أَهْل الْكِتَاب وَيُعْلِمهُمْ بِعَدَاوَتِهِمْ لَهُمْ فِي الْبَاطِن وَالظَّاهِر وَمَا هُمْ مُشْتَمِلُونَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ الْحَسَد لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَعَ عِلْمهمْ بِفَضْلِهِمْ وَفَضْل نَبِيّهمْ وَيَأْمُر عِبَاده الْمُؤْمِنِينَ بِالصَّفْحِ وَالْعَفْو أَوْ الِاحْتِمَال حَتَّى يَأْتِي أَمْر اللَّه مِنْ النَّصْر وَالْفَتْح وَيَأْمُرهُمْ بِإِقَامَةِ الصَّلَاة وَإِيتَاء الزَّكَاة وَيَحُثّهُمْ عَلَى ذَلِكَ وَيُرَغِّبهُمْ فِيهِ كَمَا قَالَ مُحَمَّد بْن إِسْحَاق حَدَّثَنِي مُحَمَّد بْن أَبِي مُحَمَّد عَنْ سَعِيد بْن جُبَيْر أَوْ عِكْرِمَة عَنْ اِبْن عَبَّاس قَالَ : كَانَ حُيَيّ بْن أَخْطَب وَأَبُو يَاسِر بْن أَخْطَب مِنْ أَشَدّ الْيَهُود لِلْعَرَبِ حَسَدًا إِذْ خَصَّهُمْ اللَّهُ بِرَسُولِهِ صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَكَانَا جَاهِدَيْنِ فِي رَدّ النَّاس عَنْ الْإِسْلَام مَا اِسْتَطَاعَا فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّه فِيهِمَا " وَدَّ كَثِير مِنْ أَهْل الْكِتَاب لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُمْ " الْآيَة وَقَالَ عَبْد الرَّزَّاق عَنْ مَعْمَر عَنْ الزُّهْرِيّ فِي قَوْله تَعَالَى " وَدَّ كَثِير مِنْ أَهْل الْكِتَاب " قَالَ هُوَ كَعْب بْن الْأَشْرَف وَقَالَ اِبْن أَبِي حَاتِم : أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَان أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْب عَنْ الزُّهْرِيّ أَخْبَرَنِي عَبْد الرَّحْمَن بْن عَبْد اللَّه بْن كَعْب بْن مَالِك عَنْ أَبِيهِ أَنَّ كَعْب بْن الْأَشْرَف الْيَهُودِيّ كَانَ شَاعِرًا وَكَانَ يَهْجُو النَّبِيّ صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَفِيهِ أَنْزَلَ اللَّه " وَدَّ كَثِير مِنْ أَهْل الْكِتَاب لَوْ يَرُدُّونَكُمْ" إِلَى قَوْله " فَاعْفُوا وَاصْفَحُوا " وَقَالَ الضَّحَّاك عَنْ اِبْن عَبَّاس أَنَّ رَسُولًا أُمِّيًّا يُخْبِرهُمْ بِمَا فِي أَيْدِيهمْ مِنْ الْكُتُب وَالرُّسُل وَالْآيَات ثُمَّ يُصَدِّق بِذَلِكَ كُلّه مِثْل تَصْدِيقهمْ وَلَكِنَّهُمْ جَحَدُوا ذَلِكَ كُفْرًا وَحَسَدًا وَبَغْيًا وَكَذَلِكَ قَالَ اللَّه تَعَالَى " كُفَّارًا حَسَدًا مِنْ عِنْد أَنْفُسهمْ مِنْ بَعْد مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ الْحَقّ " يَقُول مِنْ بَعْد مَا أَضَاءَ لَهُمْ الْحَقّ لَمْ يَجْهَلُوا مِنْهُ شَيْئًا وَلَكِنَّ الْحَسَد حَمَلَهُمْ عَلَى الْجُحُود فَعَيَّرَهُمْ وَوَبَّخَهُمْ وَلَامَهُمْ أَشَدّ الْمَلَامَة وَشَرَعَ لِنَبِيِّهِ صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَا هُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ التَّصْدِيق وَالْإِيمَان وَالْإِقْرَار بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّه عَلَيْهِمْ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ مِنْ قَبْلهمْ بِكَرَامَتِهِ وَثَوَابه الْجَزِيل وَمَعُونَته لَهُمْ وَقَالَ الرَّبِيع بْن أَنَس " مِنْ عِنْد أَنْفُسهمْ " مِنْ قَبْل أَنْفُسهمْ وَقَالَ أَبُو الْعَالِيَة " مِنْ بَعْد مَا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ الْحَقّ " مِنْ بَعْد مَا تَبَيَّنَ أَنْ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُول اللَّه يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوبًا عِنْدهمْ فِي التَّوْرَاة وَالْإِنْجِيل فَكَفَرُوا بِهِ حَسَدًا وَبَغْيًا إِذْ كَانَ مِنْ غَيْرهمْ وَكَذَا قَالَ قَتَادَة وَالرَّبِيع بْن أَنَس وَقَوْله " فَاعْفُوا وَاصْفَحُوا حَتَّى يَأْتِي اللَّه بِأَمْرِهِ " مِثْل قَوْله تَعَالَى " وَلَتَسْمَعُنَّ مِنْ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَاب مِنْ قَبْلكُمْ وَمِنْ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا أَذًى كَثِيرًا " الْآيَة قَالَ عَلِيّ بْن أَبِي طَلْحَة عَنْ اِبْن عَبَّاس فِي قَوْله " فَاعْفُوا وَاصْفَحُوا حَتَّى يَأْتِي اللَّه بِأَمْرِهِ" وَالسُّدِّيّ وَقَوْله " فَاعْفُوا وَاصْفَحُوا حَتَّى يَأْتِي اللَّهُ بِأَمْرِهِ " نَسَخَ ذَلِكَ قَوْله " فَاقْتُلُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَيْثُ وَجَدْتُمُوهُمْ " وَقَوْله " قَاتِلُوا الَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاَللَّهِ وَلَا بِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِر " إِلَى قَوْله " وَهُمْ صَاغِرُونَ " فَنَسَخَ هَذَا عَفْوَهُ عَنْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَكَذَا قَالَ أَبُو الْعَالِيَة وَالرَّبِيع بْن أَنَس وَقَتَادَة وَالسُّدِّيّ أَنَّهَا مَنْسُوخَة بِآيَةِ السَّيْف وَيُرْشِد إِلَى ذَلِكَ أَيْضًا قَوْله تَعَالَى " حَتَّى يَأْتِي اللَّه بِأَمْرِهِ " وَقَالَ اِبْن أَبِي حَاتِم : أَخْبَرَنَا أَبِي أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو الْيَمَان أَخْبَرَنَا شُعَيْب عَنْ الزُّهْرِيّ أَخْبَرَنِي عُرْوَة بْن الزُّبَيْر أَنَّ أُسَامَة بْن زَيْد أَخْبَرَهُ قَالَ : كَانَ رَسُول اللَّه صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَأَصْحَابه يَعْفُونَ عَنْ الْمُشْرِكِينَ وَأَهْل الْكِتَاب كَمَا أَمَرَهُمْ اللَّه وَيَصْبِرُونَ عَلَى الْأَذَى قَالَ اللَّه " فَاعْفُوا وَاصْفَحُوا حَتَّى يَأْتِي اللَّه بِأَمْرِهِ إِنَّ اللَّه عَلَى كُلّ شَيْء قَدِير" وَكَانَ رَسُول اللَّه صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَتَأَوَّل مِنْ الْعَفْو مَا أَمَرَهُ اللَّه بِهِ حَتَّى أَذِنَ اللَّه فِيهِمْ بِالْقَتْلِ فَقَتَلَ اللَّهُ بِهِ مَنْ قَتَلَ مِنْ صَنَادِيد قُرَيْش هَذَا إِسْنَاده صَحِيح وَلَمْ أَرَهُ فِي شَيْء مِنْ الْكُتُب السِّتَّة وَلَكِنْ لَهُ أَصْل فِي الصَّحِيحَيْنِ عَنْ أُسَامَة بْن زَيْد .
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